08 - 12 - 1999


Yearbook Yearbook Commercial Arbitration, A.J. van den Berg (ed.), Vol. XXV (2000)
Jurisdiction United States

US 330. United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, 8 December 1999

Related topics

The court discusses general questions relating to the interpretation of the Convention as an international treaty, also in respect of the methods of interpretation laid down in the 1969 Vienna Convention; the relationship between the New York Convention and the UNCITRAL Model Law and Recommendation 2006. 

Interpretation of the Convention

The court discusses whether the dispute falls within the wording of the arbitration agreement; and whether claims in tort fall within the scope of the agreement.

Scope of arbitration agreement
203-204 Formal validity, uniform law and municipal law
214-216 Field of application

The court discusses the meaning and effect of the referral of the resolution of disputes to arbitration, including: who can ask for referral and when, whether a party has waived its right to request arbitration, the defense that there was no contract at all; whether there was a condition precedent to the commencement of arbitration (e.g. mediation), stay of proceedings v. compelling arbitration, and national procedural specificities such as remand and removal (US), effect of class action. etc.

Referral to arbitration in general

The court discusses which law – lex fori, lex contractus, law of the State where the award will be made – applies specifically to determining whether an agreement to arbitrate is “null and void etc.“, and, by extension, which law applies to determining the validity of arbitration agreements.

Law applicable to "Null and void", etc. (for formal validity and applicable law, see Art. II, ¶204)

Multi-party disputes: The court discusses under which conditions non-signatories are covered by an arbitration agreement entered into by another party.

Third parties (see also Art. I sub F "problems concerning the identity of the respondent", ¶106)

Related court proceedings: The court discusses measures in aid of arbitration (e.g., anti-suit injunction). This topic also includes the issue of the relationship between the Convention and the recognition of a foreign judgment on the validity of the arbitration agreement.

Measures in aid of arbitration anti-suit injunction